Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Stanford University


Publications




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The Application of Ecological Theory Toward an Understanding of the Human Microbiome

Journal Article

Authors
Elizabeth Costello - Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine
Keaton Stagaman - Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene
Les Dethlefsen - Department of Medicine, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine
Brendan J.M. Bohannan - Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon, Eugene
David Relman - Department of Medicine, and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System

Published by
Science, Vol. 336 no. 6086, page(s) 1255-1262
June 6, 2012


Abstract

The human-microbial ecosystem plays a variety of important roles in human health and disease. Each person can be viewed as an island-like “patch” of habitat occupied by microbial assemblages formed by the fundamental processes of community ecology: dispersal, local diversification, environmental selection, and ecological drift. Community assembly theory, and metacommunity theory in particular, provides a framework for understanding the ecological dynamics of the human microbiome, such as compositional variability within and between hosts. We explore three core scenarios of human microbiome assembly: development in infants, representing assembly in previously unoccupied habitats; recovery from antibiotics, representing assembly after disturbance; and invasion by pathogens, representing assembly in the context of invasive species. Judicious application of ecological theory may lead to improved strategies for restoring and maintaining the microbiota and the crucial health-associated ecosystem services that it provides.