Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Stanford University


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Failing History

Opinion Piece/Newspaper Article

Amy Zegart - CISAC Faculty Member; Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution; Professor of Political Economy (by courtesy), Graduate School of Business

Published by
Foreign Policy, October 10, 2012

CISAC Faculty Member Amy Zegart outlines how the CIA's mindset has not changed since the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. Fifty years since the crisis, the CIA and other intelligence agencies still operate in an organizational and psychological mindset that favors consensus and consistency. Zegart argues that these "invisible pressures" led to intelligence failures in Cuba in 1962 and Iraq in 2002, where dissenting opinions or internal disagreements were downplayed. The CIA and other intelligence agencies will continue making these mistakes until they recognize their flawed organizational mindset.