Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Stanford University


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Association of Renal Insufficiency with Treatment and Outcomes after Myocardial Infarction in Elderly Patients

Journal Article

Authors
Shlipak MG
Paul A. Heidenreich - Stanford University
Noguchi H
Chertow G
Mark B. McClellan

Published by
Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 137 no. 7, page(s) 555-562
Oct. 1, 2002


BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease are known to have decreased survival after myocardial infarction, but the association of less severe renal dysfunction with survival after myocardial infarction is unknown.

OBJECTIVES: To determine how patients with renal insufficiency are treated during hospitalization for myocardial infarction and to determine the association of renal insufficiency with survival after myocardial infarction.

DESIGN: Cohort study.

SETTING: All nongovernment hospitals in the United States.

PATIENTS: 130 099 elderly patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized between April 1994 and July 1995.

MEASUREMENTS: Patients were categorized according to initial serum creatinine level: no renal insufficiency (creatinine level < 1.5 mg/dL [<132 micromol/L]; n = 82 455), mild renal insufficiency (creatinine level, 1.5 to 2.4 mg/dL [132 to 212 micromol/L]; n = 36 756), or moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine level, 2.5 to 3.9 mg/dL [221 to 345 micromol/L]; n = 10 888). Vital status up to 1 year after discharge was obtained from Social Security records.

RESULTS: Compared with patients with no renal insufficiency, patients with moderate renal insufficiency were less likely to receive aspirin, beta-blockers, thrombolytic therapy, angiography, and angioplasty during hospitalization. One-year mortality was 24% in patients with no renal insufficiency, 46% in patients with mild renal insufficiency, and 66% in patients with moderate renal insufficiency (P < 0.001). After adjustment for patient and treatment characteristics, mild (hazard ratio, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.73]) and moderate (hazard ratio, 2.35 [CI, 2.26 to 2.45]) renal insufficiency were associated with substantially elevated risk for death during the first month of follow-up. This increased mortality risk continued until 6 months after myocardial infarction.

CONCLUSIONS: Renal insufficiency was an independent risk factor for death in elderly patients after myocardial infarction. Targeted interventions may be needed to improve treatment for this high-risk population.