Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Stanford University


Bibliography of Democracy Promotion


A list of books, journals, etc on democracy promotion broken down by topics: "General", "Civil-Military Relations", "Civil Society", "Decentralization", "Elections", "Legislatures", "Media", "Political Parties", "Rule of Law", "Trade Unions".

Table of Contents

  1. General
  2. Civil-Military Relations
  3. Civil Society
  4. Decentralization
  5. Elections
  6. Legislatures
  7. Media
  8. Middle East
  9. Political Parties
  10. Rule of Law
  11. Trade Unions

General

  • Adesnik, David and McFaul, Michael. "Engaging Autocratic Allies to Promote Democracy," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2 (Spring 2006):7-26.
  • Allison, Graham T., Jr., and Robert P. Beschel, Jr. "Can the United States Promote Democracy?" Political Science Quarterly, vol. 107, no. 1 (Spring 1992): 81–98.
  • Birdsall, Nancy. "Do No Harm: Aid, Weak Institutions and the Missing Middle in Africa," Development Policy Review, vol.25, no.5 (September 2007): 575-598.
  • Bivens, Matt. "Aboard the Gravy Train," Harper’s (August 1997).
  • Boot, Max. "Neither New Nor Nefarious: The Liberal Empire Strikes Back," Current History, vol. 102, no. 667 (2003): 361-6.
  • Brawley, Mark R. and Baerg, Nicole. "Structural Adjustment, Development, and Democracy," International Studies Review, vol. 9, no.4 (2007):601–615.
  • Brinkley, Douglas. "Democratic Enlargement: The Clinton Doctrine," Foreign Policy, no. 106 (Spring 1997): 111–27.
  • Brown, Stephen. "Foreign Aid and Democracy Promotion: Lessons from Africa," European Journal of Development Research, vol. 17, no.2 (2005): 179-198.
  • Burnell, Peter. "From Evaluating Democracy Assistance to Appraising Democracy," Political Studies (2007).
  • ______ "Autocratic Opening to Democracy: Why Legitimacy Matters," Third World Quarterly, vol.27, no.4 (2006): 545–562.
  • ______ ed. Democracy Assistance: International Co-operation for Democratization. London: Frank Cass, 2000.
  • ______. "Good Government and Democratization: A Sideways Look at Aid and Conditionality," Democratization, vol. 1, no. 3 (Autumn 1994): 485–503.
  • Carothers, Thomas. "The ‘Sequencing’ Fallacy," Journal of Democracy, vol.18, no. 1 (2007):12–27.
  • ______. "The Backlash against Democracy Promotion," Foreign Affairs (March/April 2006).
  • ______. "Why Dictators Aren’t Dominoes," Foreign Policy (July/August 2003): 59-60.
  • ______. "Democracy, State, and AID: A Tale of Two Cultures," The Foreign Service Journal (February 2001): 21-26.
  • ______. Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington: Carnegie Endowment, 1999.
  • ______. "Democracy Assistance: The Question of Strategy," Democratization, vol. 4, no. 3 (Autumn 1997): 109–32.
  • ______. Assessing Democracy Assistance: The Case of Romania. Washington: Carnegie Endowment, 1996.
  • ______. "Aiding Post-Communist Societies: A Better Way?" Problems of Post-Communism (September/October 1996): 15–24.
  • ______. "The NED at Ten," Foreign Policy, no. 95 (Summer 1994): 123–38.
  • ______. In the Name of Democracy: U.S. Policy Toward Latin America in the Reagan Years. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
  • Chua, Amy. World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. New York: Doubleday, 2003.
  • Coate, Roger A. "The Promotion of Democracy," Global Society, vol.19, no.4 (October 2005):445 – 455.
  • Cox, Michael, G. John Ikenberry and Takashi Inoguchi. American Democracy Promotion: Impulses, Strategies, and Impacts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Crawford, Gordon. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana," European Journal of Development Research, vol. 14, no. 4 (December 2005):.571-600.
  • ______. "Promoting Democracy from Without: Learning from Within (Part I)," Democratization, vol. 10, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 77-98.
  • ______. "Promoting Democracy from Without: Learning from Within (Part II)," Democratization, vol. 10, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 1-20.
  • ______. Foreign Aid and Political Reform: A Comparative Analysis of Democracy Assistance and Political Conditionality. Leeds, U.K.: Palgrave, 2001.
  • ______. "Foreign Aid and Political Conditionality: Issues of Effectiveness and Consistency," Democratization, vol. 4, no. 3 (Autumn 1997): 69–108.
  • Crawford, Gordon and Iain Kearton. "Evaluating Democracy and Governance Assistance," Centre for Development Studies (February 2002).
  • Creative Associates International. A Retrospective of A.I.D.’s Experience in Strengthening Democratic Institutions in Latin America, 1961–1981. Washington: USAID, September 1987.
  • Crook, Elizabeth Fletcher. "Political Development as a Program Objective of U.S. Foreign Assistance: Title IX of the 1966 Foreign Assistance Act," Tufts University Ph.D. thesis, 1970 (unpublished).
  • Dalpino, Catharin E. Anchoring Third Wave Democracies: Prospects and Problems for U.S. Policy. Washington: The Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, Georgetown University, 1998.
  • ______. Deferring Democracy: Promoting Openness in Authoritarian Regimes. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.
  • Dalpino, Catharin E., and Mike Jendrzejczyk. "Has the Clinton Administration Done a Good Job of Promoting Democracy in Asia?" The CQ Researcher, vol. 8, no. 27 (July 24, 1998).
  • Dawisha, Karen, ed. The International Dimension of Post-Communist Transitions in Russia and the New States of Eurasia. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.
  • Diamond, Larry The Spirit of Democracy, New York: Times Books, 2008
  • ______. Developing Democracy: Toward Consolidation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
  • ______. Promoting Democracy in the 1990s: Actors and Instruments, Issues and Imperatives. Washington: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1995.
  • ______. "Promoting Democracy in Africa: U.S. and International Policies in Transition," in John W. Harbeson and Donald Rothchild, eds., Africa in World Politics: Post-Cold War Challenges. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995.
  • ______. "Promoting Democracy," Foreign Policy, no. 87 (Summer 1992): 25–46.
  • De Zeeuw Jeroen and Kumar, Krishna eds., Promoting Democracy in Postconflict Societies, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006
  • Dumbrell, John. "Lessons from Russia: Clinton and US Democracy Promotion," The Slavonic and East European Review, vol. 86, no. 1 (January 2008):185-186.
  • Ethier, Diane. "Is Democracy Promotion Effective? Comparing Conditionality and Incentives," Democratization, vol. 10, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 99-120.
  • European Stability Initiative. "Rhetoric and Reform: A Case Study of Institution Building in Montenegro 1998-2001," ESI Report (June 27, 2001).
  • Farer, Tom J., ed. Beyond Sovereignty: Collectively Defending Democracy in the Americas. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.
  • Finkel, Steven E. "Can Democracy Be Taught?" Journal of Democracy, vol. 14, no. 4 (October 2003): 137-151.
  • Finkel, Steven E. and Pérez-Liñán, Aníbal, Seligson, Mitchell A., Azpuru, Dinorah. "Effects of U.S. Foreign Assistance on Democracy Building:Results of a Cross-National Quantitative Study," USAID( January 12, 2006).
  • Fisher, Jeff. "Elections and International Civilian Policing: History and Practice in Peace Operations," International Foundation for Elections Systems, White Paper (June 2002).
  • François,Monika and Sud, Inder. "Promoting Stability and Development in Fragile and Failed States," Development Policy Review, vol.24, no. 2 (2007):141–160.
  • Fritz, Verena and Menocal, Alina Rocha. "Developmental States in the New Millennium: Concepts and Challenges for a New Aid Agenda," Development Policy Review, vol. 25, no. 5 (September 2007): 531-552.
  • Fukuyama, Francis and McFaul, Michael. "Should Democracy Be Promoted or Demoted?"The Washington Quarterly, vol. 31, no.1 (Winter 2007-08): 23–45.
  • Gause III, F. Gregory. "Can Democracy Stop Terrorism?" Foreign Affairs (September/October 2005).
  • Geddes, Barbara. Politician’s Dilemma: Building State Capacity in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Gershman, Carl. "The United States and the World Democratic Revolution," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 1 (Winter 1989): 127–40.
  • Gershman, Carl and McFaul, Michael. "The Assault on Democracy Assistance," Journal of Democracy, vol. 17, no. 2 (2006): 36-51
  • Golub, Stephen. "Assessing and Enhancing the Impact of Democratic Development Projects: A Practitioner’s Perspective," Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 28, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 54–70.
  • Green, Jerrold D. "USAID’s Democratic Pluralism Initiative: Pragmatism or Altruism?" Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 5 (1991): 215–31.
  • Grindle, Merilee S., ed. Getting Good Government: Capacity Building in the Public Sector of Developing Countries. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Institute for International Development, 1997.
  • Guney, An. "The European Union's Democracy Promotion Policies in Algeria: Success or Failure?" Journal of North African Studies, vol. 12, no. 1 (2007): 109-128
  • Halperin, Morton H., and Kristen Lomasney. "Guaranteeing Democracy: A Review of the Record," Journal of Democracy, vol. 9, no. 2 (1998): 134–47.
  • Hendrickson, David C. "The Democratist Crusade: Intervention, Economic Sanctions, and Engagement," World Policy Journal, vol. 11 (Winter 1994/1995) 18–30.
  • Hook, Steven W. " ‘Building Democracy’ through Foreign Aid: The Limitations of United States Political Conditionalities, 1992–96," Democratization, vol. 5, no. 3 (Autumn 1998): 156–180.
  • Huntley, James Robert. Pax Democratica: A Strategy for the 21st Century. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
  • International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 1998.
  • ______. The International IDEA Handbook on Democracy Assessment. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001.
  • Joyner, Christopher C. "The United Nations and Democracy," Global Governance, vol. 5 (1999): 333–57.
  • Kearns, Ian. "Western Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy in Serbia," Political Quarterly, vol. 70, no. 1 (January/March 1999): 23-30.
  • Kopstein, Jeffrey. "The Transatlantic Divide over Democracy Promotion," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 2 (Spring 2006): 85-98.
  • Landsberg, Chris. "Promoting Democracy: The Mandela-Mbeki Doctrine," Journal of Democracy, vol. 11, no. 3 (July 2000): 107-21.
  • Lasota, Irena. "Sometimes Less is More," Journal of Democracy, vol. 10, no. 4 (October 1999): 125-28.
  • Leftwich, Adrian, ed. "Governance, Democracy and Development in the Third World," Third World Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 3 (1993) 605–24.
  • ______. Democracy and Development: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, U.K.: Polity Press, 1996.
  • Lovell, David W. "Democracy Promotion as Foreign Policy: Some Cautionary Reflections," The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, vol. 2, no. 2. (September 2007: 101-125.
  • Lowenthal, Abraham F., ed. Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991.
  • Lowenkron, Barry F. "Realism: Why Democracy Promotion Matters," American Foreign Policy Interests, vol.29, no.3 (2007): 201 – 206.
  • Mandelbaum, Michael. "Democracy without America," Foreign Affairs (September/October 2007)
  • Meernik, James. "United States Military Intervention and the Promotion of Democracy," Journal of Peace Research, vol. 33, no. 4 (November 1996): 391–420.
  • Mendelson, Sarah E. "Democracy Assistance and Political Transition in Russia," International Security, vol. 25, no. 4 (Spring 2001): 68-106.
  • Milliken, Jennifer and Krause, Keith. "State Failure, State Collapse, and State Reconstruction: Concepts, Lessons and Strategies," Development and Change, vol. 33, no. 5 (November 2002): 753-774.
  • Monten, Jonathan. "The Roots of Bush Doctrine: Power, Nationalism, and Democracy Promotion in U.S. Strategy," International Security, vol. 29, no. 4 (2005): 112-156
  • Moore, Mick, and Mark Robinson. "Can Foreign Aid Be Used to Promote Good Government in Developing Countries?" Ethics and International Affairs, vol. 8 (1994): 141–58.
  • Moss, Todd J. "U.S. Policy and Democratisation in Africa: The Limits of Liberal Universalism," The Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 33, no. 2 (1995): 189–209.
  • Muravchik, Joshua. Exporting Democracy: Fulfilling America’s Destiny. Washington: American Enterprise Institute Press, 1991.
  • Natsios, Andrew S. "Five Debates on International Development: The US Perspective," Development Policy Review, vol. 24, no. 2(March 2006): 131-139.
  • Niblett, Robin. "Choosing between America and Europe: A New Context for British Foreign Policy," International Affairs, vol.83, no.4 (2007): 627–641.
  • Olsen, Gorm Rye. "Europe and the Promotion of Democracy in Post- Cold War Africa: How Serious is Europe and for What Reason?" African Affairs, vol. 97, no. 388 (July 1998): 343–67.
  • ______. "Promotion of Democracy as a Foreign Policy Instrument of ‘Europe’: Limits to International Idealism," Democratization, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 142-67.
  • Ott, Dana and Melissa Rosser. "The Electronic Republic? The Role of the Internet in Promoting Democracy in Africa," Democratization, vol. 7, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 137-56.
  • Ottaway, Marina, and Theresa Chung. "Debating Democracy Assistance: Toward a New Paradigm," Journal of Democracy, vol. 10, no. 4 (October 1999): 99-113.
  • Ottaway, Marina. "Rebuilding State Institutions in Collapsed States," Development and Change, vol. 33, no. 5(November 2002): 1001-1023.
  • ______. "Think Again: Nation Building," Foreign Policy (September/October 2002): 16-24.
  • ______. Africa’s New Leaders: Democracy or State Reconstruction? Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.
  • ______. Democracy Challenged: The Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism. Washington: Carnegie Endowment, 2003.
  • Packenham, Robert A. Liberal America and the Third World: Political Development Ideas in Foreign Aid and Social Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973.
  • Palmer, Ambassador Mark. Breaking the Real Axis of Evil: How to Oust the World’s Last Dictators by 2005. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
  • Papi, Dr. arko, et al. International Support Policies to South-East European Countries: Lessons (Not) Learned in B-H. Sarajevo: Muller, 2001.
  • Patrick, Stewart. ""Failed" States and Global Security: Empirical Questions and Policy Dilemmas,"International Studies Review, vol. 9, no. 4 (December 2007):6 44-662.
  • Peterson, Dave. "A Beacon for Central Africa," Journal of Democracy, Vol. 17, No. 1 (January 2006): 125-131.
  • Piazza, James A. "Do Democracy and Free Markets Protect Us From Terrorism?," International Politics, vol. 45, no. 1 (2008):72–91.
  • Piazza, James A. "Rooted in Poverty?: Terrorism, Poor Economic Development and Social Cleavages," Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 18, no. 1 (2008): 219–237.
  • Pinkney, Robert. "Can, and Should, Europe Export Democracy to Africa?" Democracy and Nature, vol. 5, no. 2 (July 1999): 325-42.
  • Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. "The Rise of ‘Political Aid’," in Larry Diamond, Marc Plattner, Yun-han Chu, Hung-mao Tien, eds., Consolidating the Third Wave Democracies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997: 295–324.
  • Pridham, Geoffrey, Eric Herring, and George Sanford, eds. Building Democracy? The International Dimension of Democratisation in Eastern Europe. New York: Leicester University Press, 1997.
  • Quigley, Kevin F.F. "Political Scientists and Assisting Democracy: Too Tenuous Links," PS, Political Science & Politics, vol. 30, no. 3 (September 1997): 564–67.
  • ______. For Democracy’s Sake: Foundations and Democracy Assistance in Central Europe. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1997.
  • Quinn, Frederick. Democracy at Dawn: Notes from Poland and Points East. College Station, Tex.: Texas A&M University Press, 1998.
  • Riccardi, Andrea. "Promoting Democracy, Peace, and Solidarity," Journal of Democracy, vol. 9, no. 4 (Fall 1998): 157–67.
  • Rieffer, Barbara Ann J., and Mercer, Kristan. "US Democracy Promotion: The Clinton and Bush administrations," Global Society, vol. 19, no. 4 (October 2005): 385-408
  • Robinson, William I. Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, US Intervention, and Hegemony. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Rumer, Eugene. "The U.S. interests and Role in Central Asia after K2," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3 (Spring 2006): 141-154.
  • Samuels, David. "At Play in the Fields of Oppression," Harper’s (May 1995).
  • Santiso, Carlos. "International Co-operation for Democracy and Good Governance: Moving Toward a Second Generation?" European Journal of Development Research, vol. 13, no. 1 (June 2001): 154-80.
  • ______. "Sisyphus in the Castle: Improving European Union Strategies for Democracy Promotion and Governance Conditionality," The European Journal of Development Research, vol. 15, no. 1 (June 2003): 1-28.
  • Schatz, Edward. "Access by Accident: Legitimacy Claims and Democracy Promotion in Authoritarian Central Asia," International Political Science Review, vol. 27, no. 3 (2006):263-284.
  • Schmidt, JR. "Can Outsiders Bring Democracy to Post-Conflict States?," Orbis, (2008).
  • Scott, James, and Kelly Walters. "Supporting the Wave: Western Political Foundations and the Promotion of a Global Democratic Society," Global Society, vol. 14, no. 2 (April 2000): 237-57.
  • Scott, James. "Transnationalizing Democracy Promotion: The Role of Western Political Foundations and Think-tanks," Democratization, vol. 6, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 146-70.
  • Sharp, Gene. From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation. Boston: The Albert Einstein Institution, 2002.
  • Smith, Tony. America’s Mission: The United States and the Worldwide Struggle for Democracy in the Twentieth Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  • Stanley, WD. "El Salvador: State-building Before and After Democratisation 1980–95," Third World Quarterly, 2006 .
  • Tomasevski, Katarina. Between Sanctions and Elections: Aid Donors and Their Human Rights Performance. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd., 1997.
  • USAID. "Conducting a DG Assessment: A Framework for Strategy Development," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (November 2000).
  • Vasquez, Ian. "Washington’s Dubious Crusade for Hemispheric Democracy," Policy Analysis, no. 201, CATO Institute (January 12, 1994).
  • Vener, Jessica I. "Prompting Democratic Transitions from Abroad: International Donors and Multi-Partyism in Tanzania," Democratization, vol. 7, no. 4 (Winter 2000): 133-62.
  • von Hippel, Karin. Democracy by Force: U.S. Military Intervention in the Post-Cold War World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
  • Wedel, Janine R. Collision and Collusion: The Strange Case of Western Aid to Eastern Europe, 1989–1998. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
  • Whitehead, Laurence, ed. "Concerning International Support for Democracy in the South," in Robin Luckham and Gordon White, eds. Democratization in the South: The Jagged Wave. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1996: 246–50.
  • ______. The International Dimensions of Democratization: Europe and the Americas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  • Wiarda, Howard J. Cracks in the Consensus: Debating the Democracy Agenda in U.S. Foreign Policy. The Washington Papers, vol. 172. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
  • Wolff, Sarah and Pace, Michelle. "Workshop: Europe's Legacy? From Colonialism to Democracy Promotion: The Case of the Mediterranean," Mediterranean Politics, vol. 12, no.3 (2007): 431 – 435.
  • Yazdani, Enayatollah. "US Democracy Promotion Policy in the Central Asian Republics Myth or Reality?," International Studies, vol.44, no.2 (2007): 141-155.
  • Richard Youngs, International Democracy and the West: The Role of Governments, Civil Society, and Multinational Business, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
  • ______. "European Approaches to Democracy Assistance: Learning the Right Lessons?" Third World Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1 (2003): 127-138.
  • ______. "Democracy Promotion: The Case of European Union Strategy," Centre for European Policy Studies, no. 167 (October 2001).
  • ______. "European Union Democracy Promotion Policies: Ten Years On," European Foreign Affairs Review, vol 6, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 355-373.
  • Zakaria, Fareed. "The Rise of Illiberal Democracy," Foreign Affairs, vol. 76, no. 6 (November/December 1997): 22–43.
  • ______. The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. New York: W.W. Norton, 2003.

Civil-Military Relations

  • Betz, David J. "The Persistent Problem of Civil-Military Relations in East and Central Europe: A Briefing Note on Democratic Control of Armed Forces," Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, (July 2002).
  • Bland, Douglas L. "Patterns in Liberal Democratic Civil-Military Relations," Armed Forces and Society, vol. 27, no. 4 (Summer 2001): 525-40.
  • Burk, James. "Theories of Democratic Civil-Military Relations," Armed Forces and Society, vol. 29, no. 1 (Fall 2002): 7-29.
  • Cope, John A. International Military Education and Training: An Assessment, McNair Paper, no. 44. Washington: Institute for National Strategic Studies, October 1995.
  • Donnelly, Chris. "Civil-Military Relations in the New Democracies," Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, vol. 17, no. 1 (March 2001): 7-10.
  • Forman, Johanna Mendelson, and Claude Welch. Civil-Military Relations: USAID’s Role. Washington: USAID Center for Democracy and Governance, July 1998.
  • Huntington, Samuel, P. "Reforming Civil-Military Relations," Journal of Democracy, vol. 6 (1995): 9–17.
  • Mares, David R. Civil-Military Relations: Building Democracy and Regional Security in Latin America, Southern Asia, and Central Europe. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
  • Rhame, Thomas G. "Security Assistance Programs: Promoting Democracy in the Post-Cold War Era," Army, vol. 46, no. 6 (June 1996): 25–31.
  • Ulrich, Marybeth Peterson. "U.S. Assistance and Military Democratization in the Czech Republic," Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 45, no. 2 (March/April 1998): 22–32.
  • Watts, Larry L. "Reforming Civil-Military Relations in Post-Communist States: Civil Control vs. Democratic Control," Journal of Political and Military Sociology, vol. 30, no. 1 (Summer 2002): 51-70.
  • Woodward, Susan L. "Do the Root Causes of Civil War Matter? On Using Knowledge to Improve Peacebuilding Interventions," Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, vol.1, no. 2 (2007): 143 – 170.

Civil Society

  • Abramson, David M. "A Critical Look at NGOs and Civil Society as Means to an End in Uzbekistan," Human Organization, vol. 58, issue 3 (Fall 1999): 240-50.
  • Berman, Sheri. "Civil Society and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic," World Politics, vol. 49, no. 3 (April 1997): 401-429.
  • Blair, Harry. "Civil Society and Building Democracy: Lessons from International Donor Experience," in Amanda Bernard, Henny Helmrich, and Percy B. Lehning, eds., Civil Society and International Development. Paris: North-South Centre of the Council of Europe and Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1998.
  • ______. "Jump-Starting Democracy: Adult Civic Education and Democratic Participation in Three Countries," Democratization, vol. 10, no. 1 (Spring 2003): 53-76.
  • Bratton, Michael, and Philip Alderfer. "The Effects of Civic Education on Political Culture: Evidence from Zambia," World Development, vol. 27, no. 5 (1999): 807–24.
  • Brysk, Alison. "Democratizing Civil Society in Latin America," Journal of Democracy, vol. 11, no. 3 (July 2000): 151-65.
  • Diamond, Larry. "Rethinking Civil Society: Toward Democratic Consolidation," Journal of Democracy, vol. 5, no. 3 (July 1994): 4–17.
  • Doherty, Ivan. "Democracy Out of Balance. Civil Society Can’t Replace Political Parties," Policy Review, no.106 (April-May 2001): 25-35.
  • Edwards, Bob, Michael W. Foley, and Mario Diani, eds. Beyond Tocqueville: Civil Society and the Social Capital Debate in Comparative Perspective. Hanover, N.H.: University Press, 2001.
  • Edwards, Michael, and David Hume. Beyond the Magic Bullet: NGO Performance and Accountability in the Post-Cold War. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1996.
  • Encarnación, Omar G. "Tocqueville’s Missionaries: Civil Society Advocacy and the Promotion of Democracy," World Policy Journal, vol. 17, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 9-18.
  • ______. The Myth of Civil Society: Social Capital and Democratic Consolidation in Spain and Brazil. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2003.
  • Foley, Michael W. "Laying the Groundwork: The Struggle for Civil Society in El Salvador," Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, vol. 38, no. 1 (1996): 67–104.
  • Foley, Michael W., and Bob Edwards. "The Paradox of Civil Society," Journal of Democracy, vol. 7, no. 3 (July 1996): 38-52.
  • Forman, Johanna Mendelson. "Promoting Civil Society in Good Governance: Lessons for the Security Sector," Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (2002).
  • Fowler, Alan. "Non-governmental Organizations as Agents of Democratization: An African Perspective," Journal of International Development, vol. 5, no. 3 (1993): 325–39.
  • Fullinwider, Robert K., ed. Civil Society, Democracy and Civic Renewal. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1999.
  • Hadenius, Axel, and Fredrik Uggla. "Making Civil Society Work, Promoting Democratic Development: What Can States and Donors Do?" World Development, vol. 24, no. 10 (1996): 1621–39.
  • Hann, Chris, and Elizabeth Dunn, eds. Civil Society: Challenging Western Models. New York: Routledge, 1996.
  • Hansen, Gary. Constituencies for Reform: Strategic Approaches for Donor-Supported Civic Advocacy Programs. USAID Program and Operations Assessment Report no. 12. Washington, D.C.: USAID, February 1996.
  • Haynes, Jeff. Democracy and Civil Society in the Third World: Politics & New Political Movements. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997.
  • Hearn, Julie. "Foreign Aid, Democratisation and Civil Society in Africa: A Study of South Africa, Ghana and Uganda," Institute of Development Studies, discussion paper 368 (March 1999).
  • Henderson, Sarah L. Building Democracy in Contemporary Russia: Western Support for Grassroots Organizations. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2003.
  • Hudock, Ann C. NGOs and Civil Society: Democracy by Proxy? Cambridge: Polity Press, 1999.
  • Hulme, David, and Michael Edwards, eds. NGOs, States and Donors: Too Close for Comfort? New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
  • Jenkins, Rob. "Mistaking ‘Governance’ for ‘Politics’: Foreign Aid, Democracy and the Construction of Civil Society," Civil Society: Histories and Possibilities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Jünemann, Annette. "From the Bottom to the Top: Civil Society and Transnational Non-Governmental Organizations in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership," Democratization, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 87-105.
  • Keane, John. Civil Society: Old Images, New Visions. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 1998.
  • Luong, Pauline Jones, and Erika Weinthal. "The NGO Paradox: Democratic Goals and Non-democratic Outcomes in Kazakhstan," Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 51, no. 7 (1999): 1267-84.
  • Macdonald, Laura. Supporting Civil Society: The Political Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Central America. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
  • McMahon, Patrice C. "Building Civil Societies in East Central Europe: The Effect of American Non-Governmental Organizations on Women’s Groups," Democratization, vol. 8, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 45-68.
  • Mendelson, Sarah E., and John K. Glenn, eds. The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
  • National Democratic Institute. Increasing Citizen Participation through Advocacy Efforts: A Guidebook for Program Development. Washington: National Democratic Institute, 2000.
  • Ndegwa, Stephen N. The Two Faces of Civil Society: NGOs and Politics in Africa. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1996.
  • Ottaway, Marina and Thomas Carothers. Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy Promotion. Washington: Carnegie Endowment, 2000.
  • Ottaway, Marina. "Strengthening Civil Society in Other Countries," The Chronicle Review (June 2001).
  • Pearce, Jenny. "Civil Society, the Market and Democracy in Latin America," Democratization, vol 4, no. 2 (Summer 1997): 57–83.
  • Pietrzyk, Dorota I. "Democracy or Civil Society?" Politics, vol. 23, no. 1 (February 2003): 38-45.
  • Pospieszna, Paulina. "Funding Civil Society: Foreign Assistance and NGO Development in Russia," Journal of International Relations and Development, vol. 10, no. 4 (December 2007): 451-454
  • Quigley, Kevin F.F. "Towards Consolidating Democracy: The Paradoxical Role of Democracy Groups in Thailand," Democratization, vol. 3, no. 3 (Autumn 1996): 264–86.
  • Reilly, Charles A., ed. New Paths to Democratic Development in Latin America: The Rise of NGO-Municipal Collaboration. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
  • Richter, James. "Promoting Civil Society? Democracy Assistance and Russian Women’s Organizations," Problems of Post-Communism, vol. 49, no. 3 (January/February 2002): 30-41.
  • Rieff, David. "Civil Society and the Future of the Nation-State," The Nation (February 22, 1999): 11–16.
  • Robinson, Mark. "Strengthening Civil Society in Africa: The Role of Foreign Political Aid," IDS Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 2 (April 1995): 70–80.
  • Sabatini, Christopher, Gwendolyn Bevis, and Steven Finkel. The Impact of Civic Education Programs on Political Participation and Democratic Attitudes. Washington: Management Systems International, January 27, 1998.
  • Siegel, Daniel, and Jenny Yancey. The Rebirth of Civil Society: The Development of the Nonprofit Sector in East Central Europe and the Role of Western Assistance. New York: Rockefeller Brothers Fund, 1992.
  • Taylor, Lucy. "Textbook Citizens: Education for Democracy and Political Culture in El Salvador," Democratization, vol. 6, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 62-83.
  • USAID. "Approaches to Civic Education: Lessons Learned," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (July 2002).
  • Van Rooy, Alison, ed. Civil Society and the Aid Industry. London: Earthscan Publications, 1998.
  • White, Gordon. "Civil Society, Democratization and Development (I): Clearing the Analytical Ground," Democratization, vol. 1, no. 3 (Autumn 1994): 56–84.

Decentralization

  • Beaumont, Enid. "Democracy and Public Administration Reform Linked," Public Manager, vol. 28, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 47–50.
  • Blair, Harry. Assessing Democratic Decentralization: A CDIE Concept Paper. Washington: USAID, November 6, 1995.
  • Campbell, Tim E. J. Innovations and Risk Taking: The Engine of Reform and Local Government in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington: World Bank, 1997.
  • Cohen, John, and Stephen B. Peterson. Administrative Decentralization: Strategies for Developing Countries. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1997.
  • Crook, Richard Charles, and James Manor. Democracy and Decentralization in South Asia and West Africa: Participation, Accountability, and Performance. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Hadenius, Axel. "Decentralization and Democratic Governance: Experiences from India, Bolivia and South Africa," Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Expert Group on Development Issues (2003).
  • Heller, Patrick. "Moving the State: the Politics of Democratic Decentralization in Kerala [India], South Africa, and Porto Alegre," Politics and Society, vol. 29, no. 1 (March 2001): 131-163.
  • International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Democracy at the Local Level: The International IDEA Handbook on Participation, Representation, Conflict Management and Governance. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2001.
  • Johnson, Ronald W. Decentralization Strategy Design: Complementary Perspectives on a Common Theme, USAID Document no. PN-ABW- 981. Washington, D.C.: USAID, August 1995.
  • Manor, James. The Political Economy of Democratic Decentralization. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1999.
  • Morala, R.O. "Political Decentralization [in the Philippines]," Civil Society and Governance Program, IDS (2000).
  • O’Brien, David, and Luciano Catenacci. "Towards a Framework for Local Democracy in a War-Torn Society: The Lessons of Selected Foreign Assistance Programmes in El Salvador," Democratization, vol. 3, no. 4 (Winter 1996): 435–58.
  • Sabatini, Christopher. "Decentralization and Political Parties," Journal of Democracy, vol. 14, no. 2 (2003): 138-50.
  • USAID Center for Democracy and Governance. Handbook on Programming for Democratic Decentralization. Washington: USAID, May 2000.

Elections

  • Anglin, Douglas G. "International Monitoring of the Transition to Democracy in South Africa, 1992–1994," African Affairs, vol. 94, no. 377 (1995): 519–43.
  • Bjornlund, Eric, Michael Bratton, and Clark Gibson. "Observing Multiparty Elections in Africa: Lessons from Zambia," African Affairs, no. 91, no. 384 (July 1992): 405–31.
  • Bjornlund, Eric. "Democracy Inc.," The Wilson Quarterly (Summer 2001): 18-21.
  • Carroll, David J., and Robert A. Pastor. "Moderating Ethnic Tensions by Electoral Mediation: The Case of Guyana," Security Dialogue, vol. 24, no. 2 (1993): 163–73.
  • Elklit, Jørgen and Andrew Reynolds. "The Impact of Election Administration on the Legitimacy of Emerging Democracies: A New Research Agenda," The Helen Kellogg Institute for International Studies, (September 2000).
  • Elklit, Jørgen, and Palle Svensson. "What Makes Elections Free and Fair?" Journal of Democracy, vol. 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 32–46.
  • Elklit, Jørgen, ed. Electoral Systems for Emerging Democracies: Experiences and Suggestions. Copenhagen: Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1997.
  • Estok, Melissa, Neil Nevitte, Glenn Cowan. The Quick Count and Election Observation: An NDI Guide for Civic Organizations and Political Parties. Washington: National Democratic Institute, 2002.
  • Evered, Timothy C. United Nations Electoral Assistance and the Evolving Right to Democratic Governance. Livingston, N.J.: Center for U.N. Reform Education, 1996.
  • Fisher, Jeff. "Electoral Conflict and Violence: A Strategy for Study and Prevention," International Foundation for Election Systems, White Paper (2001-2002).
  • Garber, Larry, and Glenn Cowan. "The Virtues of Parallel Vote Tabulations," Journal of Democracy, vol. 4, no. 2 (April 1994): 95–107.
  • Goodwin-Gill, Guy S. Free and Fair Elections: International Law and Practice. Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union, 1994.
  • Herman, Edward S., and Frank Brodhead. Demonstration Elections. Boston: South End Press, 1984.
  • Hirschmann, David. Managing Democratic Electoral Assistance. Washington: USAID, 1995.
  • International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. International Electoral Standards: Guidelines for Reviewing the Legal Framework of Elections. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2002.
  • ______. The International IDEA Handbook of Electoral System Design. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2002.
  • Koenig-Archibugi, Mathias. "International Electoral Assistance," Peace Review, vol. 9, no. 3 (September 1997): 357–64.
  • Kumar, Krishna, ed. Postconflict Elections, Democratization, and International Assistance. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
  • Lyons, Terrence. Voting for Peace: Postconflict Elections in Liberia. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 1999.
  • McCoy, Jennifer, Larry Garber, and Robert Pastor. "Pollwatching and Peacemaking," Journal of Democracy, vol. 2, no. 4 (Fall 1991): 102–14.
  • National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. How Domestic Organizations Monitor Elections: An A to Z Guide. Washington: National Democratic Institute, 1995.
  • Nevitte, Neil, and Santiago A. Canton. "The Role of Domestic Observers," Journal of Democracy, vol. 8, no. 3 (July 1997): 47–61.
  • Norris, Robert and Patrick Merloe. Media Monitoring to Promote Democratic Elections: An NDI Handbook for Citizen Organizations. Washington: National Democratic Institute, 2002.
  • Padilla, David, and Elizabeth Houppert. "International Election Observing: Enhancing the Principle of Free and Fair Elections," Emory International Law Review, vol. 7, no. 1 (Spring 1993): 73–132.
  • Pastor, Robert A. "The Role of Electoral Administration in Democratic Transitions: Implications for Policy and Research," Democratization, vol. 6, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 1-27.
  • ______. "Mediating Elections," Journal of Democracy, vol. 9, no. 1 (January 1998): 154–63.
  • Reilly, Benjamin. "International Electoral Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned," Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, Working Paper 17 (June 2003).
  • ______. Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Sisk, Timothy, and Andrew Reynolds, eds. Elections and Conflict Management in Africa. Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace Press, 1998.
  • USAID. "Managing Assistance in Support of Political and Electoral Processes," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (January 2000).

Legislatures

  • Baaklini, Abdo I., and James J. Heaphey. Legislative Institution Building in Brazil, Costa Rica, and Lebanon. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1976.
  • Lippman, Hal, and Jan Emmert. Assisting Legislatures in Developing Countries: A Framework for Program Planning and Implementation, USAID Document no. PN-ACA-902. Washington: USAID, October 1997.
  • McCannell, Ryan S. Legislative Strengthening: A Synthesis of USAID Experience. Washington: USAID, May 1995.
  • USAID. "USAID Handbook on Legislative Strengthening," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (February 2000).

Media

  • Githongo, John. "Civil Society, Democratization and the Media in Kenya," Development, vol. 40, no. 4 (1997): 41–45.
  • Gross, Peter. Mass Media in Revolution and National Development: The Romanian Laboratory. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1996.
  • Howard, Ross. "International Media Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities and Lessons Learned," Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, Working Paper 19 (June 2003).
  • Janus, Noreene, and Rick Rockwell. The Latin American Journalism Project: Lessons Learned. Washington: USAID, November 1998.
  • Myers, Mary. "The Promotion of Democracy at the Grass-roots: The Example of Radio in Mali," Democratization, vol. 5, no. 2 (Summer 1998): 200–16.
  • O’Neil, Patrick H., ed. Communicating Democracy: The Media and Political Transitions. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1998.
  • ______. Post-Communism and the Media in Eastern Europe. Portland, Oreg.: Frank Cass, 1997.
  • USAID. "The Role of Media in Democracy: A Strategic Approach," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (June 1999).

Middle East

  • Afkhami, Mahnaz. "Promoting Women’s Rights in the Muslim World," Journal of Democracy, vol. 8, no. 1 (January 1997): 157–66.
  • Ayoob, Mohammed. "Challenging Hegemony: Political Islam and the North-South Divide," International Studies Review, vol.9, no.4 (2007): 629–643.
  • Brumberg, Daniel. "Democratization in the Arab World? The Trap of Liberalized Autocracy," Journal of Democracy (October 2002).
  • Brumberg, Daniel. "Liberalization Versus Democracy: Understanding Arab Political Reform," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Working Paper no. 37 (2003).
  • Byman, Daniel. "Constructing a Democratic Iraq: Challenges and Opportunities," International Security, vol. 28, no. 1 (Summer 2003): 47.
  • Carapico, Sheila. "Foreign Aid for Promoting Democracy in the Arab World," Middle East Journal, vol. 53, no. 3 (Summer 2002).
  • Cramer, Christopher and Goodhand, Jonathan. "Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better? War, the State, and the 'Post–Conflict' Challenge in Afghanistan," Development and Change, vol.33, no. 5 (November 2002): 885-909.
  • Daguzun, Jean-Francois. "France, Democratization and North Africa," Democratization, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 135-48.
  • Dalacoura, Katerina. "US democracy promotion in the Arab Middle East since 11 September 2001: A Critique," International Affairs, vol.81, no.5 (October 2005): 963–979.
  • Dawisha, Adeed and Karen Dawisha. "How to Build a Democratic Iraq," Foreign Affairs, vol. 82, no. 3 (May/June 2003): 36.
  • Gillespie, Richard and Laurence Whitehead. "European Democracy Promotion in North Africa: Limits and Prospects," Democratization, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 2002).
  • Haass, Richard. "Toward Greater Democracy in the Muslim World," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 29, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 137-48.
  • Haddadi, Said. "Two Cheers for Whom? The European Union and Democratization in Morocco," Democratization, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 149-169.
  • Hamarneh, Mustafa. "Democratization in the Masreq: The Role of External Factors," Mediterranean Politics, vol. 5, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 77-95.
  • Hawthorne, Amy. "Can the United States Promote Democracy in the Middle East?" Current History (January 2003): 21-26.
  • _____. "Middle Eastern Democracy: Is Civil Society the Answer?" Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Paper no. 44 (March 2004).
  • Henry, Clement M. "Promoting Democracy: USAID, at Sea or off to Cyberspace?" Middle East Policy, vol. 5, no. 1 (1997): 178–90.
  • Hobson, Christopher. "A Forward Strategy of Freedom in the Middle East: US Democracy Promotion and the 'War on Terror’," Australian Journal of International Affairs, vol. 59, no.1 (March 2005):39-53.
  • Joffe, George. "The European Union, Democracy and Counter-Terrorism in the Maghreb," JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 46, no. 1 (2008): 147–171.
  • Jost, Kenneth and Benton Ives-Halperin. "Democracy in the Arab World: Will U.S. Efforts to Promote Democracy Succeed?" Congressional Quarterly Researcher, vol. 14, no. 4 (January 30, 2004): 73-99.
  • Khan, Muqtedar. "Prospects for Muslim Democracy: The Role of U.S. Policy," Middle East Policy, vol. 10, no. 3 (Fall 2003): 79-89.
  • Kibble, David G. "Monarchs, Mosques, and Military Hardware: A Pragmatic Approach to the Promotion of Human Rights and Democracy in the Middle East," Comparative Strategy, vol.17, no. 4 (October 1998): 381–91.
  • Muravchik, Joshua. "Bringing Democracy to the Arab World," Current History, vol. 103, no. 669 (January 2004): 8-10.
  • Natsios, Andrew S ."Democratic Opportunity in the Arab and Muslim World," Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 19, No. 2 (June 2006): 263-270.
  • Ottaway, Marina. "Promoting Democracy in the Middle East: The Problem of U.S. Credibility," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Working Paper no. 35 (March 2003).
  • Piazza, James A. "Draining the Swamp: Democracy Promotion, State Failure, and Terrorism in 19 Middle Eastern Countries," Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, vol. 30, no. 6 (2007): 521-539.
  • ______. "Women’s Rights and Democracy in the Arab World," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Paper no. 42 (March 2004).
  • Salmoni, Barak. "America’s Iraq Strategy: Democratic Chimeras, Regional Realities," Current History, vol. 103, no. 669 (January 2004): 17-20.
  • Takeyh, Ray. "Faith Based Initiatives: Can Islam Bring Democracy to the Middle East?" Foreign Policy, (November/December 2001): 68-70.
  • ______. "Uncle Sam in the Arab Street," The National Interest, no. 75 (Spring 2004): 45-51.
  • Windsor, Jennifer L. "Promoting Democracy Can Combat Terrorism," The Washington Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 43-58.
  • Wittes, Tamara Cofman. "Arab Democracy, American Ambivalence: Will Bush’s Rhetoric about Transforming the Middle East Be Matched by American Deeds?" The Weekly Standard, vol. 9, no. 23 (February 23, 2004): 34-7.
  • Wood, Pia Christina. "French Foreign Policy and Tunisia: Do Human Rights Matter?" Middle East Policy, vol. 2 (June 2002): 92-110.
  • Young, Richard. "Europe’s Flawed Approach at Arab Democracy," Centre for European Reforms (October 2006).
  • Youngs, Richard. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in the Mediterranean: A New or Disingenuous Strategy," Democratization, vol. 9, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 40-62.

Political Parties

  • Burnell, Peter, and Alan Ware, eds. Funding Democratization. Manchester, U.K.: Manchester University Press, 1998.
  • Carothers, Thomas, Confronting the Weakest Link: Aiding Political Parties in New Democracies, Washington D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006
  • Muravchik, Joshua. "U.S. Political Parties Abroad," Washington Quarterly, vol. 12, no. 3 (Summer 1989): 91–100.
  • Phillips, Ann L. "Exporting Democracy: German Political Foundations in Central-East Europe," Democratization, vol. 6, no. 2 (Summer 1999): 70–98.
  • Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael. "Foreign Political Aid: The German Political Foundations and Their U.S. Counterparts," International Affairs, vol. 67, no. 1 (1991): 33–63.
  • Reilly, Benjamin. "Political Engineering and Party Politics in Conflict-Prone Societies," Democratization, vol.13, no.5 (2006): 811 – 827.
  • USAID. "USAID Political Party Development Assistance," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (April 1999).

Rule of Law

  • Alvarez, José. "Promoting the ‘Rule of Law’ in Latin America: Problems and Prospects," George Washington Journal of International Law and Economy, vol. 25 (1991): 287–332.
  • Biebesheimer, Christina, and J. Mark Payne. "IDB Experience in Judicial Reform: Lessons Learned and Elements for Policy Formation." Technical Papers Series, Sustainable Development Department, Inter-American Development Bank (November 2001).
  • Blair, Harry, and Gary Hansen. Weighing in on the Scales of Justice: Strategic Approaches for Donor-Supported Rule of Law Programs, USAID Program and Operations Assessment Report no. 7. Washington: USAID, 1994.
  • Chua, Amy L. "Markets, Democracy, and Ethnicity: Toward a New Paradigm for Law and Development," Yale Law Journal, vol. 108, no. 1 (October 1998): 1–107.
  • Ciurlizza, Javier. "Judicial Reform and International Legal Technical Assistance in Latin America," Democratization, vol. 7, no. 2 (Summer 2000): 211-30.
  • Dezalay, Yves, and Bryant G. Garth. Global Prescriptions: The Production, Exportation, and Importation of a New Legal Orthodoxy. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 2002.
  • Domingo, Pilar, and Rachel Sieder, eds. Rule of Law in Latin America: The International Promotion of Judicial Reform. London: Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London, 2001.
  • Elster, Jon. "Constitution-Making in Eastern Europe: Rebuilding the Boat in the Open Sea," Public Administration, vol. 71 (Spring/Summer 1993): 169–217 .
  • Faundez, Julio, ed. Good Government and Law: Legal and Institutional Reform in Developing Countries. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
  • Gardner, James. Legal Imperialism: American Lawyers and Foreign Aid in Latin America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1980.
  • Golub, Stephen. "The Growth of a Public Interest Law Movement: Origins, Operations, Impact and Lessons for Legal System Development," in G. Sidney Silliman and Lela Garner Noble, eds., Organizing for Democracy: NGOs, Civil Society and the Philippine State. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998: 254–79.
  • ______. "Beyond the Rule of Law Orthodoxy: The Legal Empowerment Alternative," Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Working Paper no. 41 (2003).
  • Hammergren, Linn A. The Politics of Justice and Justice Reform in Latin America: The Peruvian Case in Comparative Perspective. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1998.
  • Magen, Amichai. "The Rule of Law and Its Promotion Abroad: Three Problems of Scope", Stanford Journal of International Law, vol. 45 no. 1 (2008)
  • ______. Code Reform and Law Revision, USAID Document no. PN-ACD-022. Washington: USAID Center for Democracy and Governance, 1998.
  • ______. Institutional Strengthening and Justice Reform, USAID Document no. PN-ACD-020. Washington: USAID Center for Democracy and Governance, 1998.
  • ______. Judicial Training and Justice Reform, USAID Document no. PN-ACD-021. Washington: USAID Center for Democracy and Governance, 1998.
  • ______. Political Will, Constituency Building, and Public Support in Rule of Law Programs, USAID Document no. PN-ACE-023. Washington: USAID Center for Democracy and Governance, 1998.
  • Hoeland, Armin. "The Evolution of Law in Eastern and Central Europe: Are We Witnessing a Renaissance of ‘Law and Development’?" in Gessner Bolkmar, Armin Hoeland, and Csaba Varga, eds., European Legal Cultures. Dartmouth, N.H.: Aldershot, 1996.
  • Huggins, Martha. Political Policing: The United States and Latin America. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1998.
  • Jarquin, Edmundo, and Fernando Carrillo, eds. Justice Delayed: Judicial Reform in Latin America. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank, 1998.
  • Jensen, Erik G., and Thomas C. Heller, eds. Beyond Common Knowledge: Empirical Approaches to the Rule of Law. Stanford, Cal.: Stanford University Press, 2003.
  • Krasnov, Mikhail. "Is the ‘Concept of Judicial Reform’ Timely?" East European Constitutional Review, vol. 11, nos. 1/2 (Winter/Spring 2002): 92-94.
  • Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. Building on Quicksand: The Collapse of the World Bank’s Judicial Reform Project in Peru. New York: Lawyers Committee, April 2000.
  • McClymont, Mary, and Stephen Golub. Many Roads to Justice: The Law-Related Work of Ford Foundation Grantees Around the World. New York: The Ford Foundation, 2000.
  • Méndez, Juan E., Guillermo O’Donnell, and Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro. The (Un) Rule of Law & the Underprivileged in Latin America. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1999.
  • Merryman, John Henry. "Comparative Law and Social Change: On the Origins, Style, Decline and Revival of the Law and Development Movement," American Journal of Comparative Law, vol. 25, no. 3 (1977): 457–91.
  • Neild, Rachel. Themes and Debates in Public Security Reform: A Manual for Civil Society. Washington: Washington Office on Latin America, 1998.
  • Oakley, Robert B., Michael J. Dziedzic, and Eliot M. Goldberg, eds. Policing the New World Disorder: Peace Operations and Public Security. Washington: National Defense University Press, 1998.
  • Russell, Peter H., and David M. O’Brien. Judicial Independence in the Age of Democracy: Critical Perspectives from around the World. Charlottesville, Vir.: University of Virginia Press, 2001.
  • Sajó, András. "Universal Rights, Missionaries, Converts, and ‘Local Savages’," East European Constitutional Review, vol. 6, no. 1 (Winter 1997): 44–49.
  • Sevastik, Per, ed. Legal Assistance to Developing Countries. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law, 1997.
  • Sharlet, Robert. "Legal Transplants and Political Mutations: The Reception of Constitutional Law in Russia and the New Independent States," East European Constitutional Review, vol. 7, no. 4 (Fall 1998): 59–68.
  • USAID. "Guidance for Promoting Judicial Independence and Impartiality," USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance (January 2002).
  • Washington Office on Latin America. Elusive Justice: The U.S. Administration of Justice Program in Latin America. Washington: Washington Office on Latin America, May 1990.
  • Widner, Jennifer A. Building the Rule of Law: Francis Nyalali and the Road to Judicial Independence in Africa. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001.
  • Zhuojun, Wang. "Democracy, Rule of Law and Human Rights Protection under Gradually Developed Constitutionalism," Frontiers of Law in China, vol. 2, no. 3 (July 2007).

Trade Unions

  • Buchanan, Paul G. "The Impact of U.S. Labor," in Abraham F. Lowenthal, ed. Exporting Democracy: The United States and Latin America, Themes and Issues. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991: 155–87.
  • Cook, Linda J. Labor and Liberalization: Trade Unions in the New Russia. New York: Twentieth Century Fund Press, 1997.
  • Spalding, Hobart A. "The Two Latin American Foreign Policies of the U.S. Labor Movement: The AFL-CIO Top Brass vs. Rank-and- File," Science&Society, vol. 56, no. 4 (Winter 1992/1993): 421–39.
  • Welch, Cliff. "Labor Internationalism: U.S. Involvement in Brazilian Unions, 1945–1965," Latin American Research Review, vol. 30, no. 2 (1995): 61–89.